Wednesday, November 24, 2021

1970s - THE DOORDARSHAN DECADE

Television came to Bombay on Gandhi Jayanti, 2nd October 1972. And the first Hindi movie telecast was, not surprisingly, Ram Rajya, the only movie seen by Bapu. Inder Kumar Gujaral, who was then the I&B minister and later went on to become Prime Minister,  made the inaugural speech launching a service that would connect, educate and entertain millions across this vast country. But in reality, it did much more than that. In today's lingo, TV became a disruptive medium. Because, though it was telecast only for a few hours every day, Bombayites began to adjust their daily routine according to the timings of their favourite shows. And the organisation producing them was a division of Prasar Bharati known as Doordarshan. 

The day's telecast would begin with a signal bar chart followed by the Doordarshan logo that would come on to the screen with its signature tune playing in the background. The telecast was in Black and White.

The launch of Doordarshan spawned a new industry - the manufacture of Black & White TV sets, cables and aerials. The TVs were housed in a rectangular wooden box standing on four legs with folding or sliding doors protecting the screen, the speakers and the control panel. And though most televisions had a knob to switch channels, the irony was there was only one channel available. As the viewership increased, advertisements for TV brands such as Standard, Televista, Telerad, Weston, JK Tv, Dynora, Crown and the government-owned ECTv became increasingly visible in the print media. But to own a TV set, one needed a licence that had to be renewed annually at the local post office. And inspectors were doing the rounds to ensure that you did! The TV sets were connected by a flat co-axial cable to the aerials mounted on a pole on the roof or terrace. And every time there was image distortion on the screen, one had to go up and readjust the aerial whilst someone else had to co-ordinate from below, often leaning dangerously out of the window. It was a chore that we now remember as fond memories but was quite annoying then. Another option was the indoor V-shaped antenna which was usually placed on the TV cabinet.

Despite all the shortcomings in the early days, TV became a popular source of entertainment. The telecast was a mix of educational, social and entertaining programs and there was something for everyone in the family. For children, there was Magic Lamp in English, Kilbil in Marathi, Santakukdi in Gujarati and Khel Khilone anchored by Manju Singh in Hindi. The children enjoyed the quiz, arts & crafts, puppetry and of course the stories narrated on these shows. Besides, there were the English serials on Tuesdays - Fireball XL5,  Invisible Man, Man in a Suitcase, Count of Monte Cristo, Sir Francis Drake, Here's Lucy, Charlie Chaplin, Nicholas Nickleby, Father Dear Father and the universally popular German games show, Tele-Match. Ventriloquist Ramdas Padhye added to the merriment with his 'friend-in-arms' Ardhavatrao in Meri Bhi Suno. 

Cartoons such as Flintstones and those by the Films Division were also fun to watch. Stop Pull Chain, Skin in the Bin, Tree of Unity, etc., were produced by Films Division to spread a social message in a fun way. Though the quality of animation was below par as compared to Walt Disney cartoons, they did make their point.

Chaya Geet, a medley of Hindi movie songs was telecast on Thursdays whilst the effervescent Tabassum conversed with Hindi film personalities in Phool Khile Hai Gulshan Gulshan on Fridays. Both these programs were aired at 9.10 pm. Saturday evenings were reserved for regional movies, usually in Marathi and occasionally in other languages such as Gujarati and Sindhi. However, the most awaited program of the week was the Hindi movie on Sunday evening. Before the advent of the VCR, this was the only way one could watch a movie outside a theater. Such was the popularity of these programs that those who did not own a TV set would visit a neighbour, friend or relative to watch their favourite show. It was common to see many people huddled in the drawing-rooms of those fortunate to own TV set, especially on a Sunday evening.

Before we had the very popular Hum Log in the 80s, we had Chimanrao, a Marathi serial staring Dileep Prabhavalkar and Bal Karve. It was written by humourist Chintanman Joshi and it regaled audiences across language barriers. It continues to be popular even today and is widely watched on Youtube. Sunday mornings had us laugh at the witty conversation between Babban Prabhu and Yakub Sayeed in Haas Parihas.  Another popular Marathi program was Gajra that was telecast weekly. It was produced by Vinayak Chaskar and presented humourous skits and light-hearted interviews. The Diwali episode of Gajra was always a special treat. Sundar Maaze Ghar hosted by Suhasini Mulgaonkar was a 'Ladies Special' offering home improvement tips whilst in Pratibha Aani Pratima personalities from the field of Arts, Literature & Culture were interviewed giving an insight into their contribution to society.

Besides entertainment, Doordarshan also had social responsibilities to fulfil. And two shows that did just that were Amchi Maati Amchi Maansa and Kamgar Vishwa. The first gave valuable farming-related inputs to farmers and the other took up labour-related issues. But probably the most remembered program must surely be Aapan Yaannaa Pahilat Kaa! It showed pictures of missing people whilst describing their physical details and last seen location. It often made viewers wonder if they had recently seen 'that' face somewhere.

Somewhat similar to Pratibha ani Pratima was Parikrama, a talk show in Hindi hosted by Kamleshwar. Besides being a show host, Kamleshwar was also an author, screenplay writer and critic. In Parikrama, he interviewed a wide cross-section of people from diverse fields on current topics. Whilst Parikrama was wide in its scope, Aapka Swasthya hosted by Dr. Padam Singhvi focussed on different medical conditions and their treatment. For those interested in being healthy the natural way there was Dhirendra Bhramachari's Yogabhyas where two of his pupils would demonstrate various yoga poses whilst he would explain their health benefits.

Adi Marzban, a doyen of Bombay Theater produced the immensely popular Gujarati show Aavo Mari Sathe. Like Gajra in Marathi, it presented Gujarati singers, musicians as well as humourous skits featuring well-known stage artists like Dinyar Contractor, Adi Pocha and Kishore Bhatt, a.k.a Karsankaka. Besides Avo Mari Sathe, Adi Murzban also produced What's the Good Word, a word-guessing game show with Gautam as host. It was telecast on Saturdays at 9.10 pm. Later, when Suman Bajaj Kalra took over as producer, it was Sabira Merchant who went on to become the face of the show for the next two decades. 

Some other programs in Gujarati were Parijaat, Mauj Majha, Gher Betha and Yuvadarshan, the last was also telecast in Hindi and Marathi. For music lovers, there was Sugam Sangeet. Other musical programs were Shabdanche Palikade in Marathi and Sham-e-Gazal in Urdu.

For sports lovers, there was Fredun de Vitre's Sports Roundup and AFS 'Bobby' Talyarkhan's Looking Forward, Looking Back. Talyarkhan used to deliver his bland monologue with a poker face facing a fixed camera. In the absence of live relays of most sports tournaments, both these shows analysed the recent outings of Indian sportsmen.  Cricket, however, was an exception. Doordarshan brought home Cricket Test matches by broadcasting them live. The first match telecast live was the 1974 series against England, followed by one against the mighty West Indies. Later in July 1976 viewers saw Nadia Comaneci score the perfect 10 at the Summer Olympics in Montreal. 

Besides cricketing updates, Doordarshan featured daily 10 minute news in Marathi, Hindi and English. Marathi news or Batmya was telecast at 7.30 pm and was read by Pradeep Bhide, Bhakti Barve, Anant Bhave, Charushila Patwardhan, Smita Talwalkar and later, Smita Patil. Hindi Samachar came in at 9.00 pm and was presented by Sarita Sethi, Kumud Merani and Harish Bhimani. At the close of day was News in English at 10 pm with Luku Sanyal, Dolly Thakore, Gerson DaCunha, Nirmala Matthan and Pratap Sharma giving the last dispatch before we went to bed. Some of the Marathi newsreaders were also the face of Udyache Karyekram and Saptahiki which gave a preview what would be telecast the next day and over the coming week. of . As newsreaders, they became household names although some of them were already in the public eye due to their association with the theatre. 

Though it was a monopoly service, Doordarshan did make an effort to feel the viewer's pulse. There were two shows, one in Hindi and the other in Marathi, where viewers' letters were read out and reply given. T P Jain and Sudha Malhotra hosted the Hindi version which was titled Aap Ki Rai.

Advertisements on Doordarshan initially were still images with a voiceover. Ads for Forhan's Toothpaste, Bournvita, Digjam Suitings, Binaca Floride were some of the few that appeared early on. Later, HMT, Complan, Thums Up, Thrill film ads started appearing on Doordarshan.

With Delhi hosting the Asian Games in November 1982, a decade after Doordarshan Bombay's inaugural show, colour finally arrived on the small screen. With that, the golden era of black and white television that regaled us with wholesome entertainment came to an end. With the arrival of colour, and later more channels, the viewers could now watch a variety of programs as well as the live telecast of events throughout the day and most importantly, get news that was not government censored.

Sunday, October 24, 2021

Bombay 1

This is where it all began. 

On 16 February 1665 in a room in Manor House, now known as Bombay Castle, the seven islands that we today know as the Island City of Mumbai were officially handed over by the Portuguese to the representatives of the English crown. And with this dawned a new era of development, growth and prosperity of Bombay.


The first Englishman in charge of Bombay was Humphrey Cooke, thus making him the first Governor of  Bombay during the short-lived rule of the English Crown. Cooke left office in November 1666 and subsequently, following friction between the  King's agents and the Portuguese over port dues, King  Charles II handed over these islands by a royal charter dated 27 March 1668 to the East India Company for an annual rent of £10 in gold and a personal loan of £50,000 at 6% interest per annum. 

This paved the way for the President of the Council of Surat factory, Sir George Oxenden to become Governor of Bombay. Sadly, Sir George did not live long and passed away in Surat in 1669. However, for Bombay, this sad turn of events was a blessing in disguise. Oxenden's successor, Gerald Aungier was a man of vision. It was he who laid the basis for the commercial, administrative and social expansion of this city. And the subsequent developments that led to this change took place in the area we know as Fort, Bombay 400001. 

If trade and commerce were to grow, money would be required, and with that in mind Aungier set up one of the oldest surviving mints in India to mint Rupees, Pies and Bajruks in 1672. It exists today as the India Government Mint and is located behind the present RBI tower.


To ensure law and order a Court House and prison were set up in 1676 at the junction of Gunbow and Bora Bazaar Streets. Later, the court moved to the Admiralty building in Apollo Street before moving to its present location overlooking the Oval. Earlier in 1672, Portuguese laws that were in force on these islands were abrogated and replaced with the English system of justice.


Even the health of the denizens was not overlooked. A small hospital was built in 1677 at the site where St. George Hospital stands today. But most importantly, and unlike the Portuguese, Aungier assured immigrants the freedom of worship thus encouraging people of all faiths, especially from the trading communities, to settle in Bombay.  

Gerald Aungier's good work was followed up by Charles Boone who became governor in 1715. The fort walls which lent the area its name "Fort" came up during his tenure, thus securing the city from military attack. Also, during his tenure, St. Thomas' Cathedral was opened for worship on  Christmas day 1718. Earlier prayers were held in a room in  Bombay Castle, the then residence of the Governor. Besides being a place for prayers, the church was also "point zero" from where all distances in Bombay were marked.

As maritime trade now shifted from Surat to Bombay, the dockyard was extended. Parsi shipbuilder Lavji Nussarwanji Wadia was invited from Surat to build new vessels for the EIC. This dry dock was beyond where the Lion Gate stands today and the tradition of shipbuilding still continues at the Mazgaon Docks.

With the town within the fort walls making rapid progress, important civic measures were taken. A town scavenger was appointed in 1759 to oversee the sanitation. Markets were built; a native market near Bazaar Gate and a market for Europeans at Medows Street / Nagindas Master Road. A police force known as the Bhandari Militia was set up and magistrates of Police were appointed to enforce law and order. Lt. James Todd was appointed the first Lieutenant of Police on 17th February 1779 by Governor William Hornby making Mumbai Police one of the oldest police forces in the country. The Police Office was situated in Fort with the court of the senior magistrate of Police located in Forbes Street, now known as V B Gandhi Marg. 


In 1770, a group of theatre aficionados came together to propose the establishment of an amateur theatre and by 1775 were able to raise a public subscription for the same. The government too supported the idea with a grant of land on the Bombay Green. Thus, a Play House known as the Bombay Theatre came up in Fort and was one of the earliest English theatres in India. Sadly, the theatre fell out of favour with the public as well as the government, and was closed and later demolished in the 1840s. Today, the Nanji Building housing the Bank of Baroda stands in its place.


Adjacent to the Play House was the Fire Station, a forerunner to our city's Fire Brigade. It began as a horse-drawn service and played its part in the Great Fire that engulfed the town in 1803.

In 1811 the idea of having a Town Hall was first mooted. Its purpose was to offer the residents a platform to discuss, debate and speak on local and regional issues, matters of education, literature and art, and those relating to the governance and betterment of the city. The construction of the town hall began in 1821 and was completed in 1833. Nowadays, the Town Hall is better known for its occupants, namely the Asiatic Society & Library and the Stamp Office. Besides, its grand steps that lead to the main hall are quite popular for photoshoots and as a landmark meeting place.

                                                       

The Play House, Fire Station and Town Hall were all located at the periphery of an open ground known as the Bombay Green. This circular piece of real estate served as a venue for military bands and parades, a meeting place for the general public, a market for traders to transact business, open storage for commodities, and also a place of rest and recreation for the people at large. Later, when the Fort walls were demolished in the 1860s during the governorship of Sir Henry Bartle Frere, a circular garden surrounded by neo-classical buildings came up here. This garden was named Elphinstone Circle in honour of Governor Lord Elphinstone and post-independence renamed as Horniman Circle after Benjamin Guy Horniman. Horniman was a British editor of The Bombay Chronicle, a newspaper that supported India's struggle for independence. This paper was published from a red brick building, which still stands at the western edge of the circle and is home to the country's oldest surviving newspaper, Mumbai Samachar which started as weekly way back in 1822.

Outside the Elphinstone Circle, under a banyan tree, a few brokers began speculating in cotton futures and shares of textile mills that had come up in Bombay since 1854. Later, they organised themselves as the Bombay Native Share and Stock Brokers Association which in 1875 went on to become Asia's first stock exchange, now known as the Bombay Stock Exchange or BSE.

With the area acquiring a commercial overtone, financial institutions set up their office here. The Bank of Bombay, which upon its merger with the Bank of Madras and the Bank of Bengal became the Imperial Bank and subsequently the State Bank of India, set up its head office across from the Elphinstone Circle on Apollo Street. Later, as other Banks followed suit, the lane behind Apollo Street was named Bank Street.


Another significant event associated with Fort was the departure of the first train in India on 16th April 1853 from Bori Bunder, located outside the Bazaar Gate. Later, in 1878 the foundation was laid for the construction of a grand train terminal, Victoria Terminus, now renamed after Chhatrapati Shivaji.

After the fort walls were demolished, new areas outside the fort opened for development. The Bombay University, Bombay High Court and the city's first, and one of the country's earliest luxury hotels, the Watsons Hotel came up on the Esplanade that overlooked these walls.

With these signal developments and the establishment of veritable institutions in this area Bombay raced ahead of Calcutta, then the capital of British India, to emerge as the Urbs Prima in Indis, meaning the First City of India.

No wonder, the Fort precinct occupies the foremost spot in Mumbai's postal code index as 400001 and is designated as A Ward by the BMC.

Sunday, September 26, 2021

The Lost Service Providers of Bombay

The way we live and work undergoes significant change over time. Occupations that once flourished are now mostly forgotten as they do not contribute to the livelihood of most people anymore. Here are 4 such trades that once employed many in Bombay but are no longer relevant today.

All those who have visited the General Post Office before the proliferation of mobile phones would have noticed men perched on a stool on a pavement nearby, with some postal stationery, a pen, bottle of glue, stapler and seals. These men helped connect millions of migrants with their families back home through India’s vast postal network. Even locals unable to pen letters themselves used the services of these Professional Letter Writers. For a small fee, these writers would write letters in Hindi, Urdu, English and other native languages informing family, relatives and friends of happy occasions, sad news, promotions, ill health, money matters or on any issue their customers wanted to pour their heart out. In the absence of telephones in most parts of rural India, letters were the only means of communication for many poor people. The writers also doubled up as letter readers since an incoming letter had to be read should the receiver not be able to do so. And often, a reply to be given. Besides writing letters, they also helped customers send money orders, telegrams and invest in postal savings. Truly, they were the only link between many a lonely migrant and his family back home.

With the arrival of the mobile phone, its easy availability and affordability, almost everyone was soon connected. Thus the need to write letters to connect and communicate became redundant. As a result, the business of professional letter writers suffered. With the telegram and the postal money order discontinued, most of them have moved away from this profession, whilst others continue to eke out a living by stitching and sealing parcels, and writing that odd letter.

A visit to the kitchen today would reveal that steel and aluminium have replaced copper and brass vessels. Whilst elders waxed about the health benefits of cooking and having meals in copper and brass vessels, these vessels required regular maintenance. Once every few months, they had to be given a coating of tin to prevent the oxidization which occurred due to moisture. Besides, brass and copper also react to souring agents in the food. This is where the Kalaiwala or the Kalaigar came in. A travelling service provider, often accompanied by an assistant, he would move in different parts of the city advertising his services with a loud, elongated shout, Kalaaai. The process of tinning required a strip of tin, caustic soda and aluminium chloride. The vessel was first cleaned with caustic soda and water, then heated on coals fired up with air pumped from bellows. Once the vessel was hot aluminium chloride powder was sprinkled on the inside of the vessel and polished with a strip of tin using cotton cloth. The tin would melt leaving behind a fine film that would shine like silver. And the vessel was good to use for a few more months.  

Steel or aluminium vessels on the other hand do not require tinning and are easy to clean. Besides, with people staying in high rises and the lady of the house often out at work, the option of using copper or brass vessels which require regular tinning is not practical anymore.  

Today, when we want to spice up our food all we have to do is to open a packet of ground, powdered spices. But, not so a few decades ago when whole spices were purchased, dried and then ground at home, either by a member of the family or by professional spice grinders, usually women who would move from house to house with a wooden mortar and pestle. They would operate in groups of 2 or 3 and would pound the spice all at the same time but in turn. And the pounding sound would have a rhythmic beat to it. The whole spices would first be piled into the high walled mortar and then each lady would pound it with a long wooden pestle alternately until the spice was finely ground. This work was not only tiring but also detrimental to health. The ladies would cover their faces to avoid breathing in the finely powdered, but often pungent, spices. Whilst this service may still be available in rural areas, these ladies known as Masala Pisnewali Bais are no longer to be seen in Mumbai. Easy availability of a variety of powdered spices, both plain as well as blended, means that we do not need to stock up on whole spices and then grind them. And for those who want to do so, the electric mixer-grinder is always on hand.

Here is one profession that is still around but dying a slow death. The cotton carder or the Pinjari was the most visible of the four. In some places Pinjaris were also referred to as Dhuniyas and Bahnas. And they ensured that one had a good night's sleep on a soft cotton mattress or that we sat in comfort on our chairs and sofas before foam replaced cotton in furnishings. Pinjaris too roamed the towns and cities looking to redo mattresses and pillows, carding cotton by hand with the help of shaped wooden bow-like instrument with a metal wire drawn across diagonally and a mallet. This instrument also served as a calling card to advertise their services. A pull of this wire produced a Twang like sound which would draw the attention of people around. The Pinjari would open up mattresses, quilts and pillows, remove the lumpy cotton within and pass the instrument through it to separate the fibres thereby restoring its fluffiness. Some also upholstered chairs and sofas besides carding cotton. With the arrival of Rubber and PU foam cotton was no longer the preferred choice for beddings and furnishings. Some Pinjaris upgraded themselves to mattress dealers in keeping with the changing times whilst many others realised that their children were reluctant to take up this profession thus leading to its slow oblivion.


However, all is not lost. We have others, like the Bhangarwala / Kabadiwala who helps us rid our homes of  unwanted stuff , the Churiwala who sharpens knives and scissors and the Bhishti who quenches our thirst from the water in his goat skin pouch, still roaming the streets of Mumbai and reminding us of the itinerant service providers of days gone by.





Wednesday, July 7, 2021

Bhoole Bisre Geetkar

As I listened to Bhoole Bisre Geet, a music program on Vividh Bharti featuring popular songs of yesteryears, I reminisced about those lyricists who wrote such meaningful and captivating songs for Hindi cinema. The names that immediately came to mind were Majrooh Sultanpuri, Shakeel Badayuni, Shailendra, Sahir Ludhianvi, Rajendra Kishan, Hasrat Jaipuri, Kaifi Azmi and Kavi Pradeep. However, besides these songsmiths, there were other brilliant lyricists who, like some of the songs they wrote, are forgotten today. As I look back, here are a few Geetkars whose compositions we still hum but cannot easily recall their names.

Who can forget those evergreen numbers from Kashmir Ki Kali? Songs like “Diwana Hua Badal”, “Taarif Karun Kya Uski” have gone down as unforgettable melodies which were penned by Shamsul Huda, better known as S. H. Bihari. A resident of Madhupur in Jarkhand (earlier Bihar), Bihari was an Urdu poet and lyricist who wrote many memorable romantic songs for Hindi movies often pairing with noted music director O P Nayyar, better known for his rhythmic tunes. He began his lyrical journey in Hindi cinema with the 1954 movie Shart in which he gave the hit song "Na Yeh Chand Hoga, Na Taare Rahenge". Later for the 1962 box office hit Ek Musafir Ek Hasina he penned "Bahut Shukriya Badi Meherbani" which remains popular even today. But his crowning glory was the 1964 Shammi Kapoor - Sharmila Tagore super hit Kashmir Ki Kali in which he gave us some of the most seductively alluring romantic songs picturised in Hindi cinema. Later, for three movies released in 1966, Sawan Ki Ghata, Mohabbat Zindagi Hai and Yeh Raat Phir Na Aayegi, he penned enduring lyrics like "Zulfon ko Hataa le Chehare Se", "Zara Haule Haule Chalo More Sajna" and "Yehi Woh Jagah Hai Yehi Woh Fiza Hai". And whilst he went on to write lyrics for songs in Hindi movies for two more decades, some of which we hear even today, he slowly faded from the limelight as other poets like Anand Bakshi and Gulzar took centerstage.


During the 1960s and early 70s, when patriotism was often the theme in Hindi movies, many songs echoed this sentiment through lyrics that roused nationalist fervour. And a lyricist known for his patriotic verse was Prem Dhawan. Dhawan, born in Ambala in 1923, was a multitalented personality. He began his career with the Indian Peoples Theater Association and later learnt music from the maestro Ravi Shankar. Though he got a break in Hindi cinema with the K A Abbas' 1946 release Dharti Ke Laal he came into his own in 1961 with the song "Aye Mere Pyaare Watan", now often heard on Republic and Independence day, which he penned for the film Kabuliwala. Another popular number "Chhodo Kal Ki Baaten, Kal Ki Baat Poorani" from the film Hum Hindustani released in the same year urged the nation to break free from the past and move forward towards a glorious future. But it was his association with actor Manoj "Bharat" Kumar that he made a name for himself. Not only did he write lyrics for Manoj Kumar, but also composed music for his movie Shaheed which has the iconic song "Mera Rang de Basanti Chola" penned by him. Apart from being a lyricist and composer, Dhawan acted in two movies; Lajawab in 1950 and Goonj Oothi Shehnai released in 1959. The year 1970 was a big year for Dhawan what with the release of Purab Paschim, Mera Naam Joker and the Punjabi film Nanak Dhukhiya Sub Sansar which won him the National Film Award for Best Lyrics. And though he continued to write lyrics and compose music for Hindi and Punjabi movies in the 70s and 80s, his peak as a lyricist and composer was well past him.



Mera Naam Chin Chin Choo, the foot-tapping flirty number picturized on Helen and sung by Geeta Dutt in the film Howrah Bridge was written by Qamar Jalalabadi. Qamar, whose real name was Om Prakash Bhandari, was born in 1917 in Jalalabad, a village in Amritsar district. He began writing poetry from the tender age of seven. A wandering poet Amar Chand Amar acknowledging his craft gave him the pen name Qamar, meaning moon. As was the trend with poets in those days Qamar suffixed the name of his village to his pen name. Realising that the film industry offered an opportunity to poets like him he came to Bombay in the 1940s where he penned lyrics for the next 40 years. Some of his early memorable songs include "Sunti Nahi Duniya Kabhi Fariyaad Kissi Ki", "Dil Kis Liye Rota Hai...Pyar Ki Duniya Me Aisa Hi Hota Hai" and "Ek Dilke Tukde Hazaar Huye, Koyi Yahan Gira Koyi Wahan Gira". But it wasn’t that his repertoire included only sad songs. He showed his versatility with the romantic "Dil Le Gaya Koi Dil Le Gaya" sung by Suraiya and Shamshad Begum for the film Sanam, or the boisterous "Khush Hai Zamana Aaj Pehli Tarikh Hai" which was sung by Kishore Kumar in his inimitable style for Pehli Tarikh. Radio Ceylon popularised it by playing the song at the beginning of every month for many years! But the turning point in his career came in 1958 with Howrah Bridge. Besides "Mera Naam Chin Chin Choo", the seductive "Aaiye Meherbaan, Baithiye Janejaan" sung by Asha Bhosale became an instant hit. His other evergreen songs that are played even now are "Ek Pardesi Mera Dil Le Gaya" from Phagun, "Mein to Ek Khwab Hoon" from Himalay Ki God Mein, "Deewane Se Yeh Mat Poocho" from Upkar and the chart-buster "Dum Dum Diga Diga Mausam Bheega Bheega" from Chalia. 



Qamar Jalalabadi enriched Hindi and Punjabi cinema with nearly 700 songs in 156 films, his last one being the Punjabi film Qahar which was released in 1995.


Like these three Geetkars, there were many others who wrote endearing lyrics for film songs in all genres, whose words we still remember but sadly cannot recall their creator.

Saturday, June 12, 2021

Bombay's Native Trees

In the aftermath of cyclone Tauktae which hit Mumbai on the 9th / 10th of May, it was noticed that many of the trees uprooted were not native to Mumbai.

Before Bombay became India's financial and commercial capital, it was a cluster of seven islands with fishing and agriculture as the main occupations. Many areas on these islands were forested and were home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. Prior to the new species of plants and trees that were introduced, first by the Portuguese and later by the British, the green cover was made up of local or native plants and trees such as Pimpal, Hirda, Coconut, Amla, Tamarind, Mango, Bor, Fanas, Champa, Bakul, Saag, etc. As the soil here suited these trees, they could take root more firmly and thus resist the high-velocity winds that normally accompany cyclones and storms.

Here is a brief look at some of these native trees which have lent their names to streets and areas in Mumbai.

Fanaswadi in Kalbadevi is known for its temple devoted to Lord Venkateshwara. Fanas in Marathi means Jackfruit and the name Fanaswadi indicates a time when the Jackfruit trees grew abundantly here. These trees are well suited to tropical regions. With a relatively short trunk encased in smooth reddish-brown bark, they bear large oblong fruits which can weigh up to 50 kgs. The yellow coloured fleshy petals that grow inside the fruit are sweet, and along with the kernel inside it, are used in South Asian and Southeast Asian cooking. 


Chinchbunder and Chinchpokli are areas that derive their name from the Chinch or Tamarind tree which once were numerous on these islands. This tree is reported to be indigenous to tropical Africa but has been growing on the Indian subcontinent for so long that it is considered a native here. Surprisingly, the name Tamarind is said to be a corruption of the Arabic word "Tamar-al-Hindi", meaning Indian date. The tree produces a brown, pod-like fruit that contains a sweet, tangy fibrous pulp that is used in cuisines, especially in chutneys and condiments, in many parts of the world. Besides, this pulp has medicinal properties too. And in many Indian homes, it is also used to polish utensils. As with most tropical trees, the Tamarind grows well in the sun, rising to a height of 40 to 60 feet. Besides fruit, the tree also sprouts red and yellow flowers and evergreen coloured leaves that fold at night.


Borbhat lane in Girgaon is a reminder of the Bor or Indian Jujube trees that were once here. A popular fruit with school children, the Bor or Ber as is known in the north, is red in colour with a prominent round seed-bearing stone encased in its wrinkled skin. The tree itself is not very tall but quite hardy and can cope with rainy as well as dry conditions. It grows quickly and can produce fruits within 3 years. An unusual trait here is that the fruits ripen at different times on a single tree. The fruits, at first green, turn yellow and finally red as they ripen, and have a sweet-sour taste. A single tree can produce between 5000 to 10000 fruit a year! Besides fruit, the tree also bears tiny yellow flowers.


Champa, a popular and well-known flower in India has a street named after itself in Mumbai's Zaveri Bazaar precinct - Champa Galli. The popularity of this flower is not restricted to India alone. Champa is the national flower of Laos where it is called Dok Champa. Speaking of the tree, it is deciduous, meaning it sheds its leaves annually and has been widely cultivated in subtropical and tropical climates where it is a popular garden and street plant. It grows as a spreading tree to about 23–26 ft high and is flush with fragrant flowers which besides being used in garlands and as a hairdo, are also offered in temples and religious rituals. These sweetly scented flowers are white with a yellow centre though now hybrid varieties yield different colours. 


Tardeo, an area in central Mumbai similarly gets its name from the Tad tree or Toddy Palm which is commercially exploited for its sap. The sap when fermented produces Toddy wine or Tadi, a mildly intoxicating beverage that was popular with the original natives of the erstwhile seven islands. The tree, which has a trunk like a pole and fan-shaped leaves, also produces a fruit locally know as Tadgola. It is a soft fruit resembling a wobbly ice-ball that is a natural thirst quencher and a great summer cooler. 


Now, with Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation deciding to plant native trees in the city, especially in place of those uprooted in the recent cyclones, Mumbaikars can look forward to fewer tree falls during the monsoons and cyclonic storms.


Sunday, May 16, 2021

Scandals that rocked Bombay

The city of Mumbai is no stranger to scandals. Just as newspapers and television channels were agog with the Sachin Vaze scandal recently, scandals in the past too have grabbed the attention of the people and the press alike.

One of the most notorious scandals of the Victorian era was the Arthur Crawford Scandal.


Arthur Travers Crawford, Bombay’s first Municipal Commissioner (1865–71), was credited with improving the city’s infrastructure and sanitation. One of Bombay’s most popular marketplaces, the Crawford Market, was built during his tenure as Municipal Commissioner and was named after him (it is now renamed Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Market). However, the ambitious and flamboyant Crawford, later as a Revenue Commissioner, found himself at the center of an enquiry accusing him of receiving bribes from Indian officials involved in the colonial administration. Crawford was charged with taking money from Mamlatdars and other subordinate officials in lieu of giving them preferential posts or allowing them to continue in certain departments. The enquiry against him opened in 1880 and he was tried before a special commission headed by Justice Wilson of the Calcutta High Court. Subsequently, though he was acquitted by the commission, the then Governor of Bombay, Lord Reay removed his name from the ranks of civil servants in India. Facing ignominy, Arthur Crawford who had served in many roles in the Bombay administration, retired to London where he passed away in 1911.



The 1920s saw another scandal that involved a heady combination of love, murder and royalty.


In January 1925 a businessman, Abdul Kader Bawla was travelling with his mistress when his car was blocked by two other cars at Malabar Hill. A few men emerged from them and tried to abduct his mistress, Mumtaz Begum. In the scuffle that ensued, Bawla was mortally wounded. Mumtaz however had a lucky escape when a few English military officers returning from a game of golf came to her rescue. This murder and attempted abduction caused a sensation, especially because all the nine men identified as the assailants were connected to the princely state of Indore. Investigations revealed that Mumtaz Begum was a “singing girl” who performed at the court of Tukojirao III and later became his mistress. After spending a decade at the Indore court she fled and came to Mumbai where she was in a live-in relationship with Bawla.


Besides sentencing the accused, the Judge hearing the case alluded that there “may be other persons who were interested in kidnapping Mumtaz and that Indore was the place from where the attack emanated". The press too was quick to point out the connection between the murder and attempted kidnapping, and the Maharaja. This left the British government with no option but to act. Maharaja Tukojirao III was told either to accept the commission of enquiry or voluntarily abdicate, which he did in 1926 thus bringing a sordid saga of Royal obsession to an end.



A similar scandal of romance and murder would make headlines some 34 years later when naval commander Kavas Nanavaty shot dead his wife's lover, businessman Prem Ahuja. Both these scandals were later re-enacted on the screen. Mumtaz's tale was retold in the movie Kulin Kanta whilst the Nanavaty episode formed the basis of 3 movies, Yeh Raste Hain Pyar Ke, Achanak and Rustom.


With India gaining independence, civil servants and Royalty were less in the news than were politicians. And one such scandal involving an incumbent Chief Minister erupted in 1981.


Abdul Rehman Antulay was elected Chief Minister of Maharashtra in June 1980. A known loyalist of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her son Sanjay, he launched a trust, Indira Gandhi Pratibha Pratishthan. It was a time when cement was in short supply and cement quotas were allocated to builders. Allegations soon surfaced that Antulay favoured those who made contributions to this trust for receiving quotas. Surprisingly, these allegations came from within the ruling Congress Party. Maratha leaders in the Congress upset with a shift in the balance of power accused Antulay of misuse of office. Noted advocate Ram Jethmalani too jumped in the fray. Claiming to take up the matter to expose the corruption in the Congress Party, he agreed to fight the case for free. Besides the strictures passed by the Bombay High Court, the involvement of the name of the first family of the Congress Party, namely the Gandhis sealed Antulay’s fate. He resigned as Chief Minister in January 1982.



Now, with news beaming all day one can be certain that more scandals will emerge from a society that is fast-changing, restless and ambitious. 

Sunday, April 25, 2021

Bombay's Traffic Circles

When driving in the city was a breeze, and parking easily available due to fewer vehicles, roundabouts or traffic circles were built to smoothly guide the traffic arriving from different roads onto the junctions. Besides, they were a quiet oasis of green in the centre of noisy traffic. Some circles also had a fountain adding to their charm. Here are some of these traffic circles which most of us Mumbaikars must have passed by at some point in time.
Jacob Circle, situated near Mahalaxmi Station, is commonly known as Saat Rasta as one can access seven different roads from here. It got its name from Sir George Le Grand Jacob, a military General and a scholar who is credited to have transcribed the Ashokan rock inscription in Girnar, Gujarat. There was a fountain in the circle, at present not visible, which was donated by Sir George's adopted daughter. On this circle, we now have a small garden known as the Sant Gadge Maharaj Udyan.
Wellington Circle opposite Regal cinema at the northern end of Colaba was named after the iconic Wellington Memorial Fountain which stands within this traffic island. The fountain was built in the 1860s to honour the memory, and to commemorate the military achievements of the Duke of Wellington. The fountain marks the site where the Duke camped in a tent during his two visits to Bombay in 1801 and 1804. To the east of Wellington Circle stands the Gateway of India, whilst to its north is the Prince of Wales Museum. All those who have shopped at Colaba Causeway must have surely been past this one.

                                           
Flora Fountain was once a circular traffic roundabout in Fort with an exquisitely sculpted fountain at its centre. Mumbai's most visible icon is named after the Roman Goddess of flowers whose statue stands atop the fountain. The fountain designed by Richard Norman Shaw was constructed in 1864 from funds donated by Cursetjee Fardoonjee Parekh. It stands at the junction of Veer Nariman Road (formerly Churchgate Street), M. G. Road (Esplanade) and D. N. Road (Hornby Rd). Grand Victorian structures such as the Bombay High Court, The Central Telegraph Office and the Oriental Building envelop this iconic fountain.

                                               

Horniman Circle lies a few hundred meters to the east of Flora Fountain on what was earlier known as the Bombay Green. Before independence, it was known as Elphinstone Circle after Governor Lord Elphinstone. The circle enclosed a garden (and still does) with an ornamental fountain and a bandstand which made it quite popular with the Parsi community. The Asiatic Society and the Reserve Bank of India lie across the road from here. Between Flora Fountain and Horniman Circle stands Bombay's oldest Anglican church, St. Thomas Cathedral.
CP Tank or Cowasjee Patel Tank Circle stands in the Bhuleshwar area at the junction of V. P. Road, Khadilkar Road and C. P. Tank Road. Earlier, a water tank that supplied drinking water to the Girgaum area existed here. Hence the name. The tank was built by Cowasji Rustamjee Patel in 1775-6 making it the oldest tank constructed in Bombay. Once, the city had many water tanks which were a source of water for its residents before piped water was made available.
Haji Ali Circle used to be a large traffic circle with a beautifully designed garden in it. The circle was replaced by a multi-signal junction as traffic increased in the late 1980s. It was located at the meeting point of five roads with heavy traffic: Lala Lajpatrai Marg (Hornby Vellard) from the north, Warden Road from the southwest, Pedder Road from the south, Tardeo Road from the east, and Dr E Moses Rd from the northeast. The Haji Ali Dargah, a mosque and dargah of Pir Haji Ali Shah Bukhari is located on an islet west of this circle.

                                           
Khodadad Circle in Dadar East was earlier known as Dadar TT as trams coming from South Bombay terminated here. It is named after Khodadad Irani whose sons were developers in this area. Tilak Road and Babasaheb Ambedkar Road meet at Khodadad Circle, over which now stands the Jagannath Sunkersheth Flyover. Agarwal Classes, a much sought after coaching class in the 1970s, 80s and 90s was located just off this circle.
King's Circle, named after British monarch King George V, stands at the junction of Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Road (formerly Vincent Road) and Bhandarkar Road. Situated around the circle are the many popular South Indian Udupi Restaurants: Cafe Mysore, Cafe Madras and Anand Bhuvan. In 1962 the circle was renamed B N Maheshwari Udyan and true to its name there is a well laid out garden here.
Turner Road Circle. A roundabout at the junction of Turner Road, SV Road and Linking road was known as Turner Road Circle. On one side of this circle was the Esso (now HP) Petrol Pump, and on the other was Coin Tea and the Tata Blocks. This circular patch of green was removed in the late 1960s or early 70s.

                                          
As Mumbai's population and the number of vehicles increased some of these circles had to make way for a modern system of traffic management and sadly we lost some of our city's landmarks.

1970s - THE DOORDARSHAN DECADE

Television came to Bombay on Gandhi Jayanti, 2nd October 1972. And the first Hindi movie telecast was, not surprisingly, Ram Rajya, the only...